The refugee crisis due to war conflicts in the Middle East and African Horn generated about 1.5 million refugees per year. About 1.2 million arrived in 2015-2016 from Syria, Lebanon, Iraq and Afghanistan through the Balkan route via Greece to Austria and Germany and about 0.3 million via Italy (Sicily, Lampedusa) and Malta through a Mediterranean Route containing migrants from North and Sub-Saharan Africa (1-3). This heavy coin is handled by the European Union with caution as the first side of the coin (the Turkish/Greece Route) does not represent any major health care problems (not one outbreak of infectious diseases was observed in the “Balkan route” in 2015/2016); the second side of the coin representing refugees/migrants from Africa to Europe carries several infectious and/or tropical diseases from Sub-Saharan Africa and SE Asia with classic triage for tuberculosis, AIDS and malaria, followed by Hepatitis B and C and soil transmitted helmints.(4-7). This monothematic issue, with analysis of epidemiology from both sides of the coin including the proposal for migrant screening of risk factors for tropical diseases (not only) in migrants but also internally displaced and genocide victims.
Universita Cattolica Del Sacro Cuore, Instituto Clinica Malattie Infettive, Rome, Italy
St. Elizabeth University Field Hospital Alexandria, Greece
Maria lmmaculata SEU Tropical Programe, Nairobi, Kenya